By Staff Writer
Plein air painting, a term derived from the French phrase “en plein air,” which means “in the open air,” is a fascinating and time-honoured artistic practice that has captured the hearts of artists and art enthusiasts alike for centuries. This form of painting involves creating works of art outdoors, directly in the midst of the landscapes and scenes that inspire the artist. Whether it’s a serene meadow, a bustling city street, or a rugged mountain vista, plein air painting allows artists to immerse themselves in the natural world and translate their observations onto canvas.
In this article, we will explore the world of plein air painting, delving into its history, techniques, equipment, and the unique challenges and rewards it offers. By the end, you will gain a deeper appreciation for this art form and perhaps even be inspired to pick up a brush and try plein air painting for yourself.
A Historical Perspective
Plein air painting has a rich history that spans several centuries. Its roots can be traced back to the 17th century when landscape painting began to emerge as a genre in its own right. Prior to this period, landscapes were often relegated to the background of historical and religious paintings. However, with the advent of plein air painting, artists started to focus on the natural world as the primary subject of their work.
One of the pioneers of plein air painting was the French artist Claude Lorrain (1600-1682). His landscape paintings, such as “Landscape with Cattle and Peasants” and “View of Tivoli,” showcased the beauty of the countryside and captured the essence of outdoor life. Lorrain’s work laid the foundation for future landscape artists to explore the world around them.
During the 19th century, plein air painting gained prominence, particularly with the Barbizon School in France. Artists like Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and Théodore Rousseau ventured outdoors to paint directly from nature. They believed that by doing so, they could capture the ever-changing effects of light and atmosphere, resulting in more authentic and emotionally charged artworks.
Perhaps the most famous group of plein air painters in art history is the Impressionists, who emerged in France during the late 19th century. Artists like Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro sought to capture the fleeting qualities of light and colour in their paintings. Their revolutionary approach challenged the traditional techniques of studio painting and gave birth to the Impressionist movement.
Techniques of Plein Air Painting
Plein air painting demands a unique set of techniques that distinguish it from studio painting. Here are some key techniques that plein air painters employ:
Plein air painters must work quickly, as the conditions in nature can change rapidly. Light, weather, and the position of the sun all play crucial roles in the appearance of a scene. Artists need to observe these changes and adapt their work accordingly.
To capture the essence of a scene on canvas, artists often simplify the complex elements of the landscape. This might involve reducing intricate details and focusing on the most significant shapes, colours, and values.
Many plein air painters use a limited colour palette, consisting of a few essential colours, to create harmony and unity in their paintings. This practice encourages artists to mix colours on the canvas and adapt to the changing light conditions.
Alla prima, or “wet-on-wet” painting, is a technique where the artist applies fresh layers of paint over still-wet layers. This approach allows for a more spontaneous and vibrant result, which is well-suited to plein air painting.
Unlike studio painting, where artists often work from photographs or sketches, plein air painters rely on direct observation. They immerse themselves in the environment, taking in the sights, sounds, and even the smells to create a more authentic representation of the scene.
Plein air painting requires a specific set of tools and materials to ensure that artists can work effectively outdoors. Here is a list of essential equipment for plein air painting:
Easel: A portable easel is crucial for supporting the canvas or board while working outdoors. There are various types available, including tripod easels, box easels, and French easels, each with its own advantages.
Canvas or Panels: Artists can choose between stretched canvases or rigid panels for their plein air work. Panels are often preferred for their durability and ease of transport.
Brushes: A selection of high-quality brushes is essential for applying paint to the canvas. Artists may use various brush shapes and sizes for different effects.
Paints: Artists typically use oil or acrylic paints for plein air painting. A compact set of essential colours is usually sufficient, but it’s essential to choose paints of good quality to achieve desired results.
Palette: A portable palette provides a surface for mixing colours. Many plein air painters prefer a wooden palette with a thumb hole for ease of use.
Solvents and Mediums: Painters require solvents for cleaning brushes and mediums to modify the consistency and drying time of their paint. Odourless solvents are often preferred for plein air painting to minimise the environmental impact.
Portable Storage: Artists need a way to transport their materials to the painting location. Art supply bags, backpacks, or dedicated plein air painting boxes can serve this purpose.
Sun Protection: Since plein air painters spend extended periods outdoors, it’s crucial to protect themselves from the sun. Sunscreen, a wide-brimmed hat, and sunglasses are essential.
Portable Seating: Lightweight and collapsible chairs or stools are beneficial for comfort during long painting sessions.
Choosing a Painting Location
Selecting the right location for plein air painting is a crucial decision that can significantly impact the outcome of your artwork. Here are some factors to consider when choosing a painting location:
Inspiration: Look for scenes that inspire you. Whether it’s a tranquil lakeside view, a bustling urban street, or a windswept beach, choose a subject that resonates with you emotionally.
Accessibility: Ensure that your chosen location is easily accessible and safe. Consider factors like parking, proximity to amenities, and the ease of transporting your equipment.
Lighting: The quality of light is a critical aspect of plein air painting. Different times of day offer unique lighting conditions, so decide whether you prefer the soft, warm light of early morning or the dramatic shadows of late afternoon.
Composition: Pay attention to the composition of your scene. Consider the placement of objects, the balance of elements, and the overall visual harmony.
Comfort: Think about your comfort while painting. Will you have a place to sit, protection from the elements, and a comfortable view of your subject?
Safety: Always prioritise safety when selecting a location. Be aware of your surroundings, follow local regulations, and inform someone of your whereabouts, especially if you’re in a remote area.
Challenges and Rewards of Plein Air Painting
Plein air painting presents a unique set of challenges and rewards for artists. Let’s explore both aspects:
One of the most significant challenges is dealing with the ever-changing conditions of the outdoors. Weather, lighting, and even the movement of objects can all affect the painting process.
Plein air painting requires artists to work quickly, often completing a painting in a single session. This time constraint can be challenging for those used to the more leisurely pace of studio painting.
Outdoor environments can be noisy and filled with distractions. It can be challenging to maintain focus and concentration on your artwork.
Artists must carry all their supplies to the painting location, which can be physically demanding. Additionally, there may be limitations on the quantity of paint and canvas available.
Depending on the location, artists may contend with insects and wildlife, which can be both distracting and uncomfortable.
Plein air painting allows artists to immerse themselves in the beauty of the natural world. It provides an opportunity to appreciate the environment on a deeper level and forge a personal connection with it.
Plein air paintings often possess a sense of authenticity and immediacy that studio works may lack. They capture the essence of a moment in time.
Painting from life sharpens an artist’s observational skills. You learn to see and interpret the world in a more nuanced way.
Painting outdoors allows artists to capture the unique qualities of light and atmosphere present in a specific location and time.
The constraints of plein air painting can be creatively stimulating. Artists must adapt to changing conditions and embrace spontaneity in their work.
Tips for Aspiring Plein Air Painters
If you’re inspired to try plein air painting, here are some tips to help you get started:
Start with a Simple Setup: Begin with a basic set of materials to keep things manageable. As you gain experience, you can expand your equipment.
Practice Observation: Spend time observing your subject before you start painting. Notice the colours, shapes, and patterns in the landscape.
Plan Your Composition: Think about the composition of your painting and consider the rule of thirds, leading lines, and focal points to create a visually engaging piece.
Embrace Mistakes: Mistakes are a natural part of the learning process. Don’t be discouraged by them; instead, view them as opportunities to improve.
Be Prepared: Check the weather forecast and pack accordingly. Dress in layers to stay comfortable and carry essentials like water and snacks.
Learn from Others: Seek out plein air painting workshops or join local art groups to learn from experienced artists and share your experiences.
Experiment with Different Times of Day: Try painting at various times of day to experience different lighting conditions and moods.
Be Patient: Plein air painting can be challenging, so be patient with yourself. Enjoy the process of learning and growing as an artist.
Plein air painting is a timeless and captivating art form that has evolved over centuries, allowing artists to connect with nature and create authentic works of art. From its humble beginnings in the 17th century to the groundbreaking Impressionist movement of the 19th century, plein air painting has continued to inspire artists and art lovers worldwide.
While plein air painting presents its own set of challenges, such as changing conditions and time constraints, the rewards are immeasurable. Artists who venture outdoors to paint find themselves immersed in the beauty of the natural world, sharpening their observation skills and capturing the unique qualities of light and atmosphere.
If you’re interested in plein air painting, remember to start with a simple setup, practice observation, and be patient with yourself as you develop your skills. As you embark on your own plein air painting journey, you’ll discover the joy of translating the world’s beauty onto canvas and creating art that truly speaks to the heart.